"Work is Created by Means of a Potential Field"

by Alexander V. Frolov

Scientific Expert of the Russian Physical Society
P.O.Box 37, 193024, St.-Petersburg, Russia
Tel: 7-812-2747877
Email: frolov@mail.dux.ru

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The concept for a physical vacuum as an energy source is proved mathematically [1]. It is recognized that space itself has inner structure and that it can be used as a source of energy if some process is organized to change the structure of space. The existence of reality is described by means of a density probability function for energy [2]. So, any space is a result of some energy process and there is no space that has no energy at all. Some power process can be designed in any point of the space by means of an energy transformation.

Some Definitions:

1. Potential (lat. potentia, that means "force" ) is the possibility to make some action, to make some work. In physics it is a scalar parameter. The gradient of potential is the intensity of some field.

2. Field is the area of the action for some force.

3. Force is the reason (cause) for motion.

4. Work is the quantitative description for energy transformation. The quantity of work per unit of time is power.

4. Energy (Greek - "energie" means "action") is the quantitative description for different forms of motion.

Power Extraction in the Point of Changing Potential:

The potential m is maximum on the charged mass (M) surface and the potential is equal to zero 0= 0 for an infinite distance from mass (M). There is some gradient and intensity of the field:

F.1   E = - grad

as a result of the change of potential value in the process of motion from mass M to infinity.

Ordinarily, the pressure U = max - min = d is represented as the potential difference between two points in space, between A and B, for example. But the process for measurement of pressure is motion from point to point in space, and mathematically this work is derived as:

F.2   A = / x = `(x)

For the equipotential area case, any point of space has a potential = const, and in this case there is no change of energy for a measurement in different points of the equipotential area. Let's suppose that this area has zero size and is at point C. In this case there is only one way for motion and energy value change: it is motion in time. It is possible to consider some motion from the moment CA to the moment CB. If the potential A (t) is not equal to potential B(t), there is some gradient of the potential in the point C. But it is not a direction in space but the gradient as a direction in time. To note this difference, it's designation is "grad(t)" for the chronal gradient. Some intensity is created also:

F.3   E = - grad(t)

The intensity of the chronal field in the point C is created if potential is a function of time. The change of energy (transformation of energy) creates the work and in strength of this reason the chronal field of one point of space can be used as a power source. The motion here is motion in time. The work is determined here as a derivation on time:

F.4   EA = / t = `(t)

The technical system for power extraction in this case must include the "memory unit" to make the comparison between past potential value A (t) and future value B (t). An example for it is the electric capacitor, Fig.1.

The generator of changing potential is connected to the wire. The length of the wire must correspond to some resonance value. In the resonance case potential changes in the point O are maximum.

A special system to make the asymmetry in oscillation of potential here is so call "Avramenko's plug" [3]. It consists of two diodes connected to point O, Fig.2 show diodes I and capacitor used in my version of the experiment.

Diodes create a uni-directional displacement of the electrons in the wires of this circuit when the potential is changing. The capacitor is charging by means of a potential and it does not require a power source. The generator is a source of information only.

This capacitor play the role of "memory unit": at the moment A, the plates of the capacitor have different potential because of the diode's polarity. At the moment B, the potential in point O is equal to zero and the potential difference between the two capacitor plates makes the work in the load. By such an approach, grad(t) is used to create grad(x).

Note, that the potential value can be alternating or pulsating. The change and the form of this change for potential value is important here.

By analogy, with the electromotive force EMF that is produced by any potential difference source, let us introduce into consideration the so called chronomotive force, CMF. The field of this force is not spatial but chronal. The result of this force action is motion in time. Constant CMF in certain points is the result of a unidirectional change of the potential as a function of time. The nature of mass demonstrates the unidirectional motion in time from past to future. By the concept proposed here, it is the result of some unidirectional global change of some potential value. This change is global if the effect (so called natural time flow) is observed in all points of space. A local time flow effect can be created by means of a unidirectional change of potential value in some area of space.

So, two methods for creation of energy changes (in space and in time) correspond to two methods for power extraction:

1. By means of closed in space circuit "source - load".

2. By means of closed in time circuit "cause - effect".

Tesla's Concept for Wireless Power Transmission:

From Tesla's papers [4] the concept for wireless power transmission requires a source of high frequency potential electric field. The value for the potential is very high also. There is a difference in principle for Tesla's scheme and Hertz's radio transmitter. Fig.3

The sphere capacitor C1 produces an oscillating electric potential mainly instead of electromagnetic waves. Changes of induced charge created on the surface of capacitor C2 is the reason for electric current in coil L2 and in strength of this reason, some power is created in the load R.

There is no directed radio beam here. Note: in the resonance case, secondary terminal C2 can produce power in the load that is equal to the oscillating generator power. Also, several secondary terminals can be used for power extraction by means of the changing potential field.

Electrolysis as Work of Potential Field to Move the Ions:

In 1888, Russian scientist Latchinov patented his high efficiency method for electrolysis of water. He demonstrated the paradoxical situation: the electrolytic cell produced high pressure gas, but it required the same input power (electricity) that was used for low pressure gas production. A secondary effect for this high pressure gas case is the self-cooling of the electrolytic cell because of its need to compensate excess power output by means of own inner heat energy. It was in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics, but now there are many explanations for heat-work energy conversion. It was a real example for heat pump technology that is connected with syntropy but not with entropy function. Physically, the mechanics for power generation here is the work of the potential field between electrodes to move the ions. Electrical current from the primary source is not the necessary condition for electrolysis. Only the potential field produces the decomposition of water, and power output can be much more than power is used for potential field creation.

Note: the entropy function for work-heat energy transformation corresponds to the normal rate of time flow from past to future. It is possible to assume the correlation between the syntropy function of some power generation process by means of a heat-work conversion and reversed time direction.

Acceleration in a Potential Field:

In the classical example, the potential field makes work to accelerate the body (acceleration a > 0), but then the system must make work to return the body to the starting point (acceleration a < 0). The classical conclusion is: the total net work of a potential field is equal to zero and the potential field can not be used to create the power in the load. It is not a mistake but it is a particular case only.

When parameters of the field or parameters of the working body are changing, it is possible to create a constant acceleration of the body in the potential field.

Examples: Screening for part of the rotor trajectory to use Coulomb forces only for acceleration of the rotor, patent USA 4897592. Another way to exclude the negative part of the work is spatial superposition for the field source and working body, Fig.4. This scheme is proposed for experiment.

Figure 4: currently N/A

The electrode that is connected to the negative high potential source is placed near the cathode. In strength of this reason, the field of this electrode makes the work to accelerate free electrons emitted from the cathode. So, the kinetic energy of the electrons is increasing in the process of the motion of the electrons. Theoretically, the power output from anode is more than the power input.

Some analogy allows us to consider the well-known Chernetsky self-generating discharge as a demonstration for work of potential field. Figure 5 is a scheme for a small demonstration device that was made by me and demonstrated in the process of the conference New Ideas in Natural Sciences, 17 -22 June 1996, St.-Petersburg, Russia. The load is connected in serial with the discharge arc.

Fig.6 is the photo for the device. In this moment the distance between electrodes is more than the minimum arc distance and there is no discharge, there is no current in the load (lamp) either. The ampermeter (maximum value is 1 A) shows a current of 0.3 A. the power input is equal to 10Vx0.3A=3W. Figure 7 is the case for the arc discharge between electrodes. The lamp is lighting and it has a power output of about 2 W, but there is not an increasing input current. The ampermeter shows a value of 0.28 A that means a decrease of input current when the arc is working in the secondary circuit. Figure 8 is the case for a closed secondary circuit (a screw-driver makes the short connection between electrodes). The current is equal to 0.58 A. It is the ordinary case for any transformator: the connection of the load leads to an increase in consumed power.

Figure 5: currently N/A

Figure 6: currently N/A

Figure 7: currently N/A

Figure 8: currently N/A

Alexander Chernetsky [5] explained his result as a pinch-effect for a current of arc that must be equal to many hundred Amperes. In his explanation he used the virtual particles concept and vacuum zero point energy theory.

Another explanation is proposed here. Fig.9 shows two electrodes and it is clear that a charged particle has additional energy in the process of motion, since this is accelerated motion that take place in the electric field between the electrodes.

Figure 9: currently N/A

Note, that Dr. Chernetsky demonstrated in 1980 - 1990 up to 500 Kw output power by means of his self-generation electric discharge method. There are many modern patents on it, for example: U.S. patents numbers 5416391 and 5449989, Paulo Correa, Canada.

Changing Magnetic Field:

The free source of the field is the permanent magnet. To make some work periodically by means of this constant field, it is necessary to create a modulation of the flux. Figure 10 is a scheme that is very close to USA patent 3879622, John W. Ecklin. The moving metal part M periodically changes the structure of the field in the area between the magnets. It is the reason for the periodical force interaction that creates the power in the output. There is no power input to move the metal part M since it is moving into the field with an acceleration and is moving out from the field with equivalent deceleration. The other way is a rotor that periodically places the metal part M in area between the magnet and coil of the generator to create a changing field instead of a permanent field.

Figure 10: currently N/A

So, the output power that is free is the permanent magnet field source used to make the changing energy density in the power extraction point.

Inner Structure of Potential Field:

The Whittaker's potential concept considers the potential as a bi-directional energy flow [6]. Thomas E. Bearden [7] wrote in his book Gravitobiology, p.2: "Space-time in a sense may be regarded as a conglomerate of potentials - including the scalar EM potentials. Therefore the simplest structure of EM scalar potentials (trapped EM energy) is also nominally composed of such spin-2 gravitons." The structure of graviton and potentials, by Bearden, is a coupled photon/antiphoton pair. The antiphoton is a reverse-time process. Therefore, the potential field can be considered as a bi-directional electromagnetic process/antiprocess. So, power can be produced by means of a potential field only as an inner field structure disbalance. Bidirectional energy flow described above, mathematically can be presented as the equation:

F.5   0 = A + B

where the zero balance is created by means of the two opposite processes. If one of the processes A is the source of power (zero-point vacuum electromagnetics as the power source) according to F.5 the other part B must be changing also. So, for such sort process there is equation:

F.6   0 = A / t + B / t

and in another view:

F.7   A / t = - B / t

If time for the B part is considered as reversed time tr and the time for process A is considered as direct time td, we obtain the equation for the total energy conservation law that is taking into consideration direct time and reverse time energy processes.

F.8   A / td = B / tr

The conclusion of F.8: Space power is unlimited. There is no limit for power extraction if any change of value A corresponds to a change of value B. The conservation law for energy means the conservation of time balance only: the energy of processes in direct time must be equal to the energy of processes in reversed time.

This formulation is the unification of Newton mechanics law (action - reaction) and the conservation law. In a general view it can be named as balance law.

Note that zero is not nothing. It is a balanced structure. In the general case it is possible to consider the many-polarity for energy balance:

F.9   0 = A + B + C + ... + N

The time structure can be more complex than bi-directional "time/reverse-time," and a chronal area like space area can be considered in a many-dimensional version also.

Cause and Two Contra-directional Effects for Spatial Separation:

A simple example for two spatially separated effects operating from one cause is the magnet device, Fig. 11. A closed-in loop ferromagnetic structure consist of two coils L1 and L2. Let's assume that the primary flux is increasing. The direction of secondary induced flux B1 in area of coil L2 is co-directional to the primary flux. Also, the direction of the secondary induced flux B2 in area of coil L1 is co-directional to the primary flux. So, secondary fluxes are contra-directional to each other. If the primary flux is not increasing but decreasing, the situation is the same. So, from the point of the primary source view, secondary fluxes are mutual-compensated. It means that two power sources L1 and L2 are working without power consumption.

Figure 11: currently N/A

A demonstration system is shown on the photo Fig. 12. Several permanent magnets are placed inside of a plastic rotor, that is rotating by a small electromotor. In this experiment it is demonstrated that the power in the load is increasing when coil L2 is connected.

Figure 12: currently N/A

So, the two contra-directional effects are working for each other and there is no need for input power. The rotor is not decelerating if the load is connected to generator coils. The role of changing primary flux source is information source only, but it is not the power source. It is possible to build a power generator that has an efficiency of more than 100% since back torque effect is equal to zero for this bi-directional load version.


From the concept disclosed above, there is no more necessity for the conservation law for energy. Any form and any quantity of the energy can be created. The balance law requires that to create any energy process in pair needs a contra-directional energy process. Mutual-compensation for processes can take place both in space (spatial separation) and in time (chronal separation). Asymmetry for spatial separated paired energy processes is the technology for reactionless propulsion force in space. Asymmetry for chronally separated paired energy processes is the technology for propulsion force in time. Both technologies can be designed as a system that uses a new type of motion.


1. PhReview E, vol.48, num.2, p.1562-1565, Extracting energy and heat from the vacuum; PhReview A, vol.39, num.5, Gravity as a zero-point-fluctuation force, Dr. Harold Puthoff. Patent: Electronic Devices Using Discreet, Contained Charge Particle Bundless and Source of Same, H.E.Puthoff, E.W. Church, Jr.,B.B.Clifton, S.R.Little patent number 5,208,844 of May 4, 1993.

2. A.A.Nassikas, 1994, The Hypothesis of the Unified Field and the principle of its Dual Interpretation. III International Conference: "Problems of Space, Tiem, Gravitation". Russian Academy of Sciences, SRIRE-Politechnika.St.Petersburg, Russia.

3. N/A.

4. Nikola Tesla, Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1990, Publ. in Angriff Press, P.O.Box 2726, Hollywood, CA, 90078, USA.

5. N/A.

6. On the Expression of the Electromagnetic Field due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions, by E.T.Whittaker, 1903, Published in Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Vol.1, 1904, p.367-372. Also it is included in Annex C, Gravitobilogy, T.E.Bearden, p. c-1.

7. Gravitobiology, by T.E.Bearden, 1991, Tesla Book Company, P.O.Box 121873 Chula Vista, CA 91912, USA. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 86-50553.