**by Alexander V. Frolov**

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__Work is Created by Means of a Potential Field__"Scientific Expert of the Russian Physical Society

P.O.Box 37, 193024, St.-Petersburg, Russia

Tel: 7-812-2747877

Email: frolov@mail.dux.ru Documents Menu

__Introduction__: The concept for a physical vacuum as an energy source is proved mathematically [1]. It is recognized that space itself has inner structure and that it can be used as a source of energy if some process is organized to change the structure of space. The existence of reality is described by means of a density probability function for energy [2]. So, any space is a result of some energy process and there is no space that has no energy at all. Some power process can be designed in any point of the space by means of an energy transformation.

__Some Definitions__: 1. Potential (lat. potentia, that means "force" ) is the possibility to make some action, to make some work. In physics it is a scalar parameter. The gradient of potential is the intensity of some field. 2. Field is the area of the action for some force. 3. Force is the reason (cause) for motion. 4. Work is the quantitative description for energy transformation. The quantity of work per unit of time is power. 4. Energy (Greek - "energie" means "action") is the quantitative description for different forms of motion.

__Power Extraction in the Point of Changing Potential__: The potential

_{m}is maximum on the charged mass (M) surface and the potential is equal to zero

_{0}= 0 for an infinite distance from mass (M). There is some gradient and intensity of the field:

_{max}-

_{min}= d is represented as the potential difference between two points in space, between A and B, for example. But the process for measurement of pressure is motion from point to point in space, and mathematically this work is derived as:

_{A}to the moment C

_{B}. If the potential

_{A}(t) is not equal to potential

_{B}(t), there is some gradient of the potential in the point C. But it is not a direction in space but the gradient as a direction in time. To note this difference, it's designation is "grad(t)" for the chronal gradient. Some intensity is created also:

_{A}(t) and future value

_{B}(t). An example for it is the electric capacitor, Fig.1.

__Tesla's Concept for Wireless Power Transmission__: From Tesla's papers [4] the concept for wireless power transmission requires a source of high frequency potential electric field. The value for the potential is very high also. There is a difference in principle for Tesla's scheme and Hertz's radio transmitter. Fig.3

_{1}produces an oscillating electric potential mainly instead of electromagnetic waves. Changes of induced charge created on the surface of capacitor C

_{2}is the reason for electric current in coil L

_{2}and in strength of this reason, some power is created in the load R. There is no directed radio beam here. Note: in the resonance case, secondary terminal C

_{2}can produce power in the load that is equal to the oscillating generator power. Also, several secondary terminals can be used for power extraction by means of the changing potential field.

__Electrolysis as Work of Potential Field to Move the Ions__: In 1888, Russian scientist Latchinov patented his high efficiency method for electrolysis of water. He demonstrated the paradoxical situation: the electrolytic cell produced high pressure gas, but it required the same input power (electricity) that was used for low pressure gas production. A secondary effect for this high pressure gas case is the self-cooling of the electrolytic cell because of its need to compensate excess power output by means of own inner heat energy. It was in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics, but now there are many explanations for heat-work energy conversion. It was a real example for heat pump technology that is connected with syntropy but not with entropy function. Physically, the mechanics for power generation here is the work of the potential field between electrodes to move the ions. Electrical current from the primary source is not the necessary condition for electrolysis. Only the potential field produces the decomposition of water, and power output can be much more than power is used for potential field creation. Note: the entropy function for work-heat energy transformation corresponds to the normal rate of time flow from past to future. It is possible to assume the correlation between the syntropy function of some power generation process by means of a heat-work conversion and reversed time direction.

__Acceleration in a Potential Field__: In the classical example, the potential field makes work to accelerate the body (acceleration a > 0), but then the system must make work to return the body to the starting point (acceleration a < 0). The classical conclusion is: the total net work of a potential field is equal to zero and the potential field can not be used to create the power in the load. It is not a mistake but it is a particular case only. When parameters of the field or parameters of the working body are changing, it is possible to create a constant acceleration of the body in the potential field. Examples: Screening for part of the rotor trajectory to use Coulomb forces only for acceleration of the rotor, patent USA 4897592. Another way to exclude the negative part of the work is spatial superposition for the field source and working body, Fig.4. This scheme is proposed for experiment.

__Changing Magnetic Field__: The free source of the field is the permanent magnet. To make some work periodically by means of this constant field, it is necessary to create a modulation of the flux. Figure 10 is a scheme that is very close to USA patent 3879622, John W. Ecklin. The moving metal part M periodically changes the structure of the field in the area between the magnets. It is the reason for the periodical force interaction that creates the power in the output. There is no power input to move the metal part M since it is moving into the field with an acceleration and is moving out from the field with equivalent deceleration. The other way is a rotor that periodically places the metal part M in area between the magnet and coil of the generator to create a changing field instead of a permanent field.

__Inner Structure of Potential Field__: The Whittaker's potential concept considers the potential as a bi-directional energy flow [6]. Thomas E. Bearden [7] wrote in his book Gravitobiology, p.2: "Space-time in a sense may be regarded as a conglomerate of potentials - including the scalar EM potentials. Therefore the simplest structure of EM scalar potentials (trapped EM energy) is also nominally composed of such spin-2 gravitons." The structure of graviton and potentials, by Bearden, is a coupled photon/antiphoton pair. The antiphoton is a reverse-time process. Therefore, the potential field can be considered as a bi-directional electromagnetic process/antiprocess. So, power can be produced by means of a potential field only as an inner field structure disbalance. Bidirectional energy flow described above, mathematically can be presented as the equation:

_{r}and the time for process A is considered as direct time t

_{d}, we obtain the equation for the total energy conservation law that is taking into consideration direct time and reverse time energy processes.

_{d}= B / t

_{r}

__Cause and Two Contra-directional Effects for Spatial Separation__: A simple example for two spatially separated effects operating from one cause is the magnet device, Fig. 11. A closed-in loop ferromagnetic structure consist of two coils L

_{1}and L

_{2}. Let's assume that the primary flux is increasing. The direction of secondary induced flux B

_{1}in area of coil L

_{2}is co-directional to the primary flux. Also, the direction of the secondary induced flux B

_{2}in area of coil L

_{1}is co-directional to the primary flux. So, secondary fluxes are contra-directional to each other. If the primary flux is not increasing but decreasing, the situation is the same. So, from the point of the primary source view, secondary fluxes are mutual-compensated. It means that two power sources L1 and L2 are working without power consumption.

_{2}is connected.

__Conclusion__: From the concept disclosed above, there is no more necessity for the conservation law for energy. Any form and any quantity of the energy can be created. The balance law requires that to create any energy process in pair needs a contra-directional energy process. Mutual-compensation for processes can take place both in space (spatial separation) and in time (chronal separation). Asymmetry for spatial separated paired energy processes is the technology for reactionless propulsion force in space. Asymmetry for chronally separated paired energy processes is the technology for propulsion force in time. Both technologies can be designed as a system that uses a new type of motion.

__References__: 1. PhReview E, vol.48, num.2, p.1562-1565, Extracting energy and heat from the vacuum; PhReview A, vol.39, num.5, Gravity as a zero-point-fluctuation force, Dr. Harold Puthoff. Patent: Electronic Devices Using Discreet, Contained Charge Particle Bundless and Source of Same, H.E.Puthoff, E.W. Church, Jr.,B.B.Clifton, S.R.Little patent number 5,208,844 of May 4, 1993. 2. A.A.Nassikas, 1994, The Hypothesis of the Unified Field and the principle of its Dual Interpretation. III International Conference: "Problems of Space, Tiem, Gravitation". Russian Academy of Sciences, SRIRE-Politechnika.St.Petersburg, Russia. 3. N/A. 4. Nikola Tesla, Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1990, Publ. in Angriff Press, P.O.Box 2726, Hollywood, CA, 90078, USA. 5. N/A. 6. On the Expression of the Electromagnetic Field due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions, by E.T.Whittaker, 1903, Published in Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Vol.1, 1904, p.367-372. Also it is included in Annex C, Gravitobilogy, T.E.Bearden, p. c-1. 7. Gravitobiology, by T.E.Bearden, 1991, Tesla Book Company, P.O.Box 121873 Chula Vista, CA 91912, USA. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 86-50553.