"Reactionless Propulsion and Active Force"

by Alexander V. Frolov



Scientific Expert of the Russian Physical Society
P.O.Box 37, 193024, St.-Petersburg, Russia
Tel: 7-812-2747877
Email: frolov@mail.dux.ru

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Abstract:

The goal of this report is to demonstrate some technological ways to create an active force that doesnít require reactive mass flow. The active force is applied to many aerodynamics systems and is the result of the pressure difference from the medium to the system. By analogy, the space-time itself can be considered as some medium of interaction.

Introduction:

There are known mechanical systems of gyroscope precession, gyroscopes of alternating radius and gyroscopes of nonlinear vibrations. For other systems the velocity of rotation of the mass is changing for different parts of the trajectory that produce some inner gradient of pressure in the system from the rotor to the stator. Some mechanical systems use a special vortex.

The electromechanical systems use electrically charged rotors.

There are known electromagnetic systems that use the Lorenz force, magneto-hydro-dynamical effects, Hall current, etc. Some antigravitation effects are investigated for so called Hooper bi-directional coils and in the flat current systems (Mobius loop). Quite an old idea is to use a diamagnetic vapor that is accelerating in the permanent magnet field.

High electric potential systems are known by Tesla and T.T.Brown research work. The Biefeld-Brown effect describes the active force that is created in any flat capacitor towards the positive plate side for voltages above 50 kV. Mr. Brown did not offer an explaination of the effect to find the reason of the force so we have chance to suppose that this force is the result of the asymmetry for orbital motion of the electrons in the dielectric atoms in strength of the electric field between plates. The asymmetry leads to a centrifugal force gradient and non-zero linear component of this force.

Letís note a research program for a superconductivity gravitation connection.

A special case is thermo-gravitation propulsion technologies. Fig. 1.1, which shows a plan for an experiment that was described by Alexander Shegolev as weight changes in a heated metal ball if in the top of the ball the cone part was removed to create a non-zero total heat flow of this mass.

Letís find the reasons for this active (reactionless) force.

It is known that interaction between atoms or molecules and space-time are demonstrated as chaotic oscillations or movements that are considered as heat processes in matter. In material objects of special shape (like the ball above) the vector sum of such oscillations is not equal to zero so the object gets some impulse in the direction that is defined by its shape. The nature of this impulse is the same as the nature of chaotical impulses that are received by any atom from the space-time (from the ether).

Fig. 1.2. shows a plan for another thermogravitation closed system design: the reactive flow is transformed by some converter. One of many versions for it is the cooling of the flow by means of special vortex process. Such as for Fig.1 where the active force is result of non-zero vector sum for heat processes of each particle of the matter.

To continue, we have to make some supposition about the nature of the heat energy. According to Pavel D. Ouspensky (Russian philosopher) and Nikolay A. Kozyrev (Russian astrophysics) there is an energy exchange between particles of matter and the so called flow of time for any really existing material particle. In other words, it is the physical mechanism of the existence of the mass-matter in the time flow. By P.D.Ouspensky the heat chaotical oscillations are the result of this energy exchange. By N.A.Kozyrev, the stars have no inner source of energy but are working like some kind of machine that transforms the energy of so called flow of time into the energy of heat radiation (electromagnetic waves). So, we can make the conclusion: The existence of any material system is defined by its energy exchange with the so called flow of time of certain velocity i.e. rate of process.

Modern vacuum physics considers the notion about so called "virtual particles". An old idea for the ether particles also can explain chaotical impulse interaction between a real particle of matter and vacuum (ether). The target now can be formulated in next way: an active drive should be designed if the conditions for directed impulse energy exchange between real and virtual particles are created. Such interaction takes place anytime and always but the total vector sum is zero in strength of the spontaneous nature of the process. We have the chance to order this process as directed heat flow in the mass of the drive, or to influence onto the vacuum by means of a force field (electrical, for example) to order the processes of creation and annihilation of the virtual particles. Such influence is the reason of electrical interactions. Fig.2 shows repulsion and attraction modes for two electrically charged bodies. In the first case, the total sum intensity between bodies is less than the intensity of each body. In the second case, the intensty between bodies is more than the intensity of the electrical field of each body. In fact, each electrically charged body is surrounded by a joint summary electrical field that is not symmetrical and some gradient of electrical intensity is the reason for the force. It is important to understand that there is a direct interaction between the body and surrounding space (ether) and the force is the result of the gradient of the pressure such as in aerodynamics. There is no need in the hypothesis about so called "long distance interaction" since all force interactions (electrical included) are simple mechanical effects.

The Lorentz force also can be considered the result of some gradient in the ether, Fig. 3.3.

Since the "intensity of the field" itself is the gradient of the Ďpotential" ( E = - grad phi ) so the gradient of the "intensity of the field" (grad E) is a quality new notion that leads to a new physical effect, i.e. to the active non-compensated force.

Assuming the common nature of the considered examples we have to conclude: the basis for electrical and magnetic interactions is the same as for the energy exchange of heat processes. The "field" means some area of space where the processes of interaction between the ether and matter are not chaotical and spontaneous but are ordered to some degree. More order means more value of the force. The field influence to processes of impulse interaction between material particle and ether (virtual) particle to make this interaction is directed in some certain direction. In this way we are coming to the mechanics on the ether level as the basis for electricity and gravitation which is electrogravitational unification.

Letís consider some design, where the properties of the matter are used to create the situation described above. It is necessary note that there is no difference in principle between a particle of matter and space area near the particle that was mentioned by Faraday. So, if we are working to make some special structure of the matter, we are working with space structure in the volume of this material object.

The dielectric, Fig.3, placed between plates is non-linear since there is a gradient of permittivity along the electrical intensity lines. Normally, the polarization of particles of the dielectric is symmetrical in the positive and negative plate sides. But in this case, the asymmetry of properties of the dielectric produces the asymmetry of polarization and there is some non-compensated force in such a capacitor. T.T.Brown patented something like this in USA patent 3187206 of May 9, 1959. The simplest case is a two-layer dielectric, Fig. 4.1 where the force is created on the border between two different dielectrics. This force is known from 1927 and it is applied for industry as Johnsen-Raabek effect.

Letís consider an experiment, Fig. 4.2 The base of the design has a dielectric permittivity of 6 and the second layer has a dielectric permittivity of 1. The square of the plate is 100 square cm. The high potential direct current source is self-made design. The potential difference is about 10 kV. The calculated active force should be about 0.001 N or 150 mg which was detected by means of rotation torsion effect.

Fig.5 is an approximated calculation for a commercial project. The surface is taken as 100 square meters. The capacity of a sphere for 1 cm radius is 1 pF, the calculated capacity should be about 1 microFarad. Special ceramics can be used that allow increased permittivity from 1 up to 80. The potential of 100 kV is quite a possible value. So, for this potential and the surface weíll get the electrical charge about 8 Coulomb. The difference of forces those are acting on the particles of this gradient dielectric is about 80 ton.

There is square function for force from the potential, so it is more useful to increase the potential for the same surface than to increase the surface.

In the conclusion let me say about necessity for a true law of impulse conservation. The name of the report "reactionless propulsion" noted the absence of ordinary reactive flow of fuel mass. In the systems considered above there is a reaction since the velocity of the system is changing and the compensation effect here is the change of the impulse of the "virtual particles" or "particles of the ether". So, the heat energy exchange balance should be changed and the ether becomes colder. We can detect it since the time rate should be changed for the mass of the so called "working body" of such sort active drive.

Alexander V. Frolov

June 20, 1998. St.-Petersburg