**by Alexander V. Frolov**

"

"

__The Concept of Mass-Process__"Scientific Expert of the Russian Physical Society

P.O.Box 37, 193024, St.-Petersburg, Russia

Tel: 7-812-2747877

Email: frolov@mail.dux.ru Documents Menu

__Introduction:__The truth of the matter wave theory is now widely recognized. Attractive as this theory may seem at first sight, it is open to one serious objection: the wave superpositions are unstable and must be disintegrating. To solve this problem, enable it with the supposition that mass particle may be represented as stable dynamical superposition of wave packets that have place for a resonance condition. In this paper, it is demonstrated how to calculate the resonance parameters of certain mass-object which are described by means of a spatial curvature function. Several examples demonstrate that natural mass-objects are described by a whole number value of resonator curvature. This property allows us to consider the space-time as a secondary induced effect of the mass process. Mass and the gravitation field around it are balanced energy systems. The concept can be used as an applied tool for energy-mass and mass-energy transformations in energetic and gravitational propulsion systems. This is a new approach to the definition of the nature of time which allows us to develop applied experimental research work in chronal technologies.

__Time as the Radius of a 4-dimensional Resonator:__Let's consider the motion of a point along a closed trajectory. This process creates a dynamical one-dimensional space-time which is the line. It is a process and there is some period. If the line is closed, there is a resonance phenomenon and the parameter for it is radius R. Curvature is defined as 1/R:

_{1}= 1/R [ 1/m ]

_{1}is the linear curvature. The process of motion for all lines creates the dynamical surface that is two-dimensional space-time. If it is a closed surface (sphere), the resonance parameter for it is two-dimensional curvature:

_{2}= 2/R [ 1/m ]

_{3}= 3/R [ 1/m ]

_{4}= 4/R [ 1/m ]

__Electrodynamic Nature of Mass-Effect:__In 1923 L. de Brogle supposed that mass-particles must have wave properties. He used the formulations E=hf and E=pc, where p is the impulse, h is the Planck constant, f is the frequency, m is the mass, c is the light velocity. Then he joined both parts in the equation hf=pc. For a wave-length = c/f this formula is known as = h/p [1]. There is another logical branch for this idea and this leads to a wider concept of mass. Instead of E=pc, by de Broglie, let us take the formula for energy of rest mass:

^{2}

^{2}= hf

*mass can be represented as electromagnetic oscillations*:

^{2}) f

^{2}) is a new constant between mass (m) and frequency of oscillation (f). Let's call it the chronal constant because it demonstrates mass and time correlation:

^{2}x 1/T

*the product of the mass and period is a constant value*:

^{2}= const

^{2}) and is equal to 0.73725 10 x

^{-50}[Js

^{2}/m

^{2}]. In other words, there is no time separately from mass, by F.10. Large masses of out time-system are the planets and Sun. Taking into consideration the Heisenberg formula:

^{2}

*The mass of particle is the result of electromagnetic energy oscillations*. Let's consider some problem and find the solution for it: by F.9 the increase of mass corresponds to a decrease of time period, but in the macro-world we can observe that the gravitation field of the body (of the star, for example) is the reason of the increase of the photon's oscillation period ("red shift"). This is the pre-condition for the supposition: Space of some mass is created as a balanced structure like paired forces by Newton. Local areas of high frequency electromagnetic oscillations, those that produce localized in space mass-effect M, must be compensated by some change of structure of space around mass M, i.e. some field (the field is an area of action of some force) must be produced (induction phenomenon), and this field is also electromagnetic oscillations. This induced compensation field is the gravitation field of mass. The mass and gravitation field of this mass are two mutual-compensating processes themselves, but they are separated in space and in time: the mass of the object is localised in some three-dimensional area of space and the gravitation field of this mass is localized in some period of time, i.e. the gravitation field of the mass particle has a certain period of oscillation, wave-length and frequency. In strength of the symmetry, the mass particle is not localised in time (it is moving in time from past to future) but the gravitation field is not localised in space (it is dispersed in all of the Universe from the source of the field to infinity). The situation above is described by Heisenberg's formula F. 11. To solve the question about the "red shift" of the photon that is travelling in a gravitation field of some planet, for example, let's assume that there is a balance of the positive and negative time functions: (f > 0) inside of the mass corresponds to (f < 0) outside of the mass. Time (t

^{+}> 0) inside of the mass and time (t

^{-}< 0) around the mass. In other words, it is a chronal version for Newton's action and reaction law. Any body produces a t

^{+}process for itself and a t

^{-}process (gravitation field) around itself. So, if body M produces a negative time value in space around mass M, the spectrum (wave length) of light beam that is travelling near M must be changing into a longer time period area ("red shift"). Any object that is placed in the gravitation field of another mass object has its own plus-time (t

^{+}), but in external minus-time (t

^{-}) the total time rate t is calculated as the difference of plus-time and minus-time, Fig.1.

Mass M oscillations |
Gravitation field of mass M oscillations |

f > 0 | f < 0 |

t > 0 | t < 0 |

^{+}+ t

^{-}

_{m}- t

_{g}

_{m}is the positive inner time of the mass and t

_{m}is the negative external time of the other mass. Note: The rate of time t=0 means a zero-state of energy oscillation, i.e. the period of the process (T) is equal to infinity, and the frequency (f) is equal to zero. The answer for the question above is: For a photon that is moving in a gravitation field of some massive body and for a body that is placed in an area of a gravitation field produced by other mass, total time effect is a summed result of its own positive time and negative time of the external gravitation field. The decrease of its own time in result of this summarising is demonstrated as the "red shift" of a photon's wave-length. It corresponds to a decrease of the photon's electromagnetic mass. The mass of body that is placed in a gravitation field of another body is decreasing also. It is possible to obtain zero or a negative sum for t. Such sort of situation is known as a black hole. What is f<0 for oscillations of electromagnetic energy? What is the type of this oscillation? There is an example for this situation in radioelectronics. If some frequency (f

_{1}is a carrier and some frequency f

_{2}is the modulation frequency, in an ordinary case f

_{1}> f

_{2}, i.e. the signal (f

_{1}) is changing with a frequency of modulation (f

_{2}). Measurements are measured for one point of space, i.e. the amplitude, phase or other parameter of electromagnetic wave is changing as the time function for one point of space. If f

_{1}< f

_{2}, the modulation of the signal is possible but all structure of the signal at one moment of time

*must be changing by the modulation law with f*. The signal is not a wave in this case but is a stress field like an electrostatic or gravitation field. The example above is a relative case for f

_{2}in all points of the signal_{1}and f

_{2}. If f

_{1}=0, the value of frequency f

_{2}can be more than zero or less than zero. So, f

_{2}can be considered as a positive or negative frequency of electromagnetic energy oscillations. So, inside of a mass there is an ordinary electromagnetic wave process (f > 0; t > 0), but it is compensated by external (f < 0; t < 0) oscillation of electromagnetic energy density in all points of space around the body possible for an electrostatic field. Value f is the same for both cases. By such an approach

*the gravitation field around some mass particle is an electrostatic high frequency field*. The frequency can be calculated by F. 8 for any known mass value, for example, a proton has a frequency value of about 8.1 x 10

^{26}[Hz]. This electrogravitation unification allows us to produce control of the gravitation. An example of similar technology is disclosed in H. Hooper's USA patent number 3,610,971 of 1971, "All -electric Motional Field Generator," and demonstrated in his experiment that used high frequency electric fields changing in one direction only (from zero to some potential, but the field was not an alternating field, polarity of potential was not changing).

__Over-Light Velocity:__An interesting conclusion for velocity of motion can be obtained from F.12:

^{2}= m u x / c

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}= x

*the wave-length value of the object determines the size of the local area (space) of the object*. For a velocity 0 < u < c, the wave-length of an object is lesser than the possibility of determination of the object position x.

_{t}> c, formula F.19 can be represented as:

_{t}x / c

^{2}= (c + u) x / c

^{2}

__Energy and Time__: The physical sense of the constant h is described by Heisenberg's formulation also as h = E t. In this general formulation, if the period of observation (T) is large, the energy of the system is known, and if the period (T) is very small, the energy has a spectrum of energy levels. Such a property is demonstrated by elementary particles. Formula E = hf = h/T can be transformed to;

__Constant of Photon Spreading as a Dimensionality Factor__: Now let's appeal to the simplified model for the space-time relation that is established:

_{3}= 3r

_{1}

_{1}

_{1}= 1/r

_{3}

__Planet Curvature Value__: Before continuing, let us assume that the theory of similarity for microcosm and macrocosm is true, hence the planet can be considered an elementary particle in certain sense. Substitute in the matter wave-length formula:

^{-63}[ m ]

_{3}= m

_{3}c

^{2}= 9 m

_{3}

_{4}= m

_{4}c

^{2}= 16 m

_{4}

_{3}is the mass of 3-space and m

_{4}is the mass for 4-space description. Note this important supposition:

*The total energy of a system is the same independent of different dimensionality descriptions*. It means that the same amount of energy (but in different forms of energy) must be considered in 3-space and 4- space descriptions for one certain system. In other words, the total net energy of the Universe is the same independently of the dimensionality used by the observer. So, we must write:

_{1}= E

_{2}= E

_{3}= E

_{4}=...

_{3}= 16 m

_{4}

_{4}u) = (9h)/(

_{3}u)

_{3}is the wave-length in 3-space, and

_{4}is the wave-length is 4-space. As the system is the same, the velocity is the same. So, there is a simple ratio:

_{4}= (16/9)

_{3}from F. 34 in F.41 and you obtain the value:

_{4}= 66.22 x 10

^{-64}[ m ]

_{4}= 1/

_{4}= 151.00 x 10

^{60}[ 1/m ]

^{-8}[ 1/s ]

_{em}= c/f = 9.46 x 10

^{16}[ m ]

_{em}= 1057.00 x 10

^{-20}[ 1/m ]

_{em}/ r

_{4}) = 7 x 10

^{-80}

__Bohr's Atom Space-Time__: The curvature for Bohr's radius R = 0.52917 Å is:

^{9}[ m ]

_{1}= r

_{3}/3 = 1.0025 x 10

^{9}[ m ]

__Space-Time of a Proton__: To calculate the wave-length of a proton, let's use formula F.9:

^{2})f = (h/c

^{2})(c/) = (h/c )

^{-27}kg, the wave-length = 0.75676739... (mathematical degree omitted) and curvature are equal to:

__DNA-molecule Space-Time__: Another example is the DNA helical molecule. The unfolded spire-length period of it is equal to 71.4417 Å, which conforms to a curvature value of:

_{DNA}= 14.0000 x 10

^{7}[ 1/m ]

_{2}= 2 108 [ 1/m ]

_{1}= 1 x 10

^{8}[ 1/m ]

__Conclusion__: It would be premature to talk about the validity of this concept since the assumptions underlying it are open to question. It is necessary to make the experimental verification of this approach to the resonance nature of matter and vacuum. The Law of Whole Number Value for the curvature of natural elements of matter, demonstrated in this paper, is a mathematical tool for different technologies. The case of its practicality, the control on the rate of time and curvature of space, on the stability of matter (mass-energy transformations) and vacuum (energy-mass transformations) is not fantasy but technology. Also, this Law shows that the absolute natural system for calculation is the decimal system and the absolute natural system for measurement is the "meter/sec" system. There is the possibility of establishing a new standard metre definition. Since absolute systems are impossible in accidental phenomenon, the Law of Whole Numbers for curvature values of elements of matter shows that the material World is created. This is the main conclusion of this paper.

__References__: 1. Cooper, Leon N. (1974),

__An Introduction to the Meaning and Structure of Physics__, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, Evanston, London, 1968. p.136 by Russian Edition (1974).