**by Alexander V. Frolov**

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__Chronal Reaction Method for Propulsion Systems__"Scientific Expert of the Russian Physical Society

P.O.Box 37, 193024, St.-Petersburg, Russia

Tel: 7-812-2747877

Email: frolov@mail.dux.ru Documents Menu

__Introduction__: Work is considered for most systems to be the result of the spatial gradient of the potential, i.e the result of the intensity of the potential field. The "field" in this sense is some spatial area where some force makes some body to move in a known direction, so this force is the spatial vector. In another case we can consider the energy of the potential field in somesingle point of space and the value of the energy is not a constant value but is some function by the time. In this case it is possible to use two different moments of the space-time instead of two different points of the space-time, to generate the power. The intensity here is described as the "chronal gradient" and the "chronal field" is the area of moments when some force makes the body to move in time (in known 4-dimensional direction), i.e. this force is the chronal vector. It is supposed that the natural flow of the time can be considered as such a process, and the rate of time can be changed by some similar technical methods. The power (mechanical work) that is generated by this method, is not a free power since any such system is a transformer of 4-dimensional form of motion into the 3-dimensional form. The previous experimental work on this method was made by N.Tesla and by other followers of the idea for single-wire power transmission. The present paper discloses the chronal and gravitation aspects, and discusses some approaches to realization of the technology that is known also as the "warp drive" by Miguel Alcubierre, Univesity of Wales, UK.

1. The Work can be Created by Means of a Potential Field: The concept for a physical vacuum as an energy source is proved mathematically [1]. It is recognized that space itself has some inner structure and it can be used as a source of energy if some process is organized to change the structure of space. The existence of this reality is described by means of a density probability function for energy [2]. So, any space is the result of some energy process and there is no space that has no energy at all. Some power process can be designed in any point of the space by means of an energy transformation.

By common definitions: 1. Potential (lat. potentia, that means "force" ) is the possibility to make some action, to make some work. The gradient of potential is the intensity of some field. 2. Field is the area of action for some force. 3. Force is the reason (cause) for motion. A conventional method to extract the power is the utilization of the potential difference (voltage, or pressure) between two points of different potentials. For example, the potential jm is equal to the maximum on the surface of the charged mass M and potential j0 = 0 for an infinite distance from mass M. In this way, there is some gradient and intensity of the field.

As a result of change for a potential value in the process of motion from mass M to infinity. Ordinarily, the pressure U = max - min = d is represented as a potential difference between two points in space, between A and B, for example. The process for measurement of pressure is the motion from one point to another point of the space, and mathematically this work is a derivation procedure:

The work and power are the result of this motion, since potential gradient means some changes of energy value (energy transformation ). For an equipotential area case, any point of space has a potential = const, and in this case there is no change of energy for different points. Let's suppose that this area has zero size and it is some point C. In other words, let's consider the space of the point, the space of zero size. There is no possibility for motion in any spatial direction and in this case there is only one way for energy value change: it is motion in time. It is possible to consider some motion from the moment CA to the moment CB. If the potential A(t) is not equal to potential B(t), there is some gradient of the potential in point C. But it is not the direction in space but the gradient as a direction in time. To note this difference let's use the designation "grad(t)" for the chronal gradient. Some intensity is created also:

The intensity of the chronal field in point C is created if the potential is a function of time. The change of energy (transformation of energy) creates the work and in strength of this reason the chronal field of one point of space can be used as a power source. The motion here is motion in time. The work is determined here as a derivation on time:

A technical system for power extraction in this case must include the "memory unit" to make the comparison between a past potential value A(t) and a future value B(t). An example for it is the diode system by Avramenko, Fig.1.

The generator of changing potential is connected to the wire. By my experimental experience, the length of the wire must correspond to some resonance value to create the maximum potential changes in the point O. The special system to produce the asymmetry in oscillation of potential here is a so called "Avramenko's plug" [3]. It is two diodes which are connected to the point O (In my version of the experiment I used KZ106 high voltage diodes and a 3 KV 0.47 mkF capacitor). The diodes create uni-direction displacement of the electrons in the wires of this circuit when the potential is changing. The capacitor is charging by means of the changing potential only and does not require the power source. This capacitor plays the role of "memory unit": at the moment A plates of the capacitor have different potential because of diodes polarity. At the moment B the potential in point O is equal to zero and the potential difference between two capacitor plates make the work in the load. By such an approach grad(t) is used to create grad(x). The device is working without the capacitor also, and the load R can be powered directly from the diodes. In Tesla's experimental demonstrations the diodes were not used, but a special resonance coil was installed at the end of the single-wire line. Both ends of the coil were used to power the load. For more information, please, look at Tesla's drawings or the book "The Inventions, Researchers and Writings of Nikola Tesla" by Thomas Commerford Martin, Fig. 176 - Fig.184. By analogy with electromotive force EMF that is produced by any potential difference source, let us introduce into the consideration so called "chronomotive force" CMF. The field of this force is not spatial but chronal, i.e it is an area of moments of the time instead of the area of some points of the space. Result of this force action is the motion in the time axis. Constant CMF in certain point can be created technically as the result of the unidirectional change of the potential as function of time. Sure, it is impossible to increase the potential from zero value to infinity, but it is possible to create the periodical unidirectional changes of the potential. The sinusoidal processes produce only bi-directional changes and in that case the net effect for CMF is zero. The nature of mass demonstrate the unidirectional motion in time from past to future. By the author's concept proposed here, it is the result of some unidirectional global change of some potential value. This change is global since the effect (so called "natural time flow") is observed in all points of space. Local time flow effect can be created by means of unidirectional change of potential value (for example, electrical potential) in some area of space. So, two methods for creation of energy changes correspond to two methods for power extraction: By means of closed in space circuit "source - load" between two points of different potential or by means of closed in time circuit "cause - effect" between two moments of different potential.

2. Tesla's Concept for Wireless Power Transmission: By Tesla's papers [4] the concept for wireless power transmission require the source of high frequency potential electric field. The value for the potential in his experiments was a very high one also. There is the difference in principle for Tesla's scheme and Hertz's radio transmitter.

Sphere capacitor C1 produces the oscillating electric potential mainly (Tesla's way) instead of electromagnetic waves (Hertz's way). By Hertz's way the generation of the electromagnetic wave require to change the capacitor of LC-circuit into "open-surface-system", and the electrical field between the plates will take a large space. By this way, the two-plate capacitor of resonance LC-circuit was developed in dipole antenna element. The antenna by Hertz produce the wave or it use the potential difference between two dipoles as output signal. By Tesla's way, the changes of induced charge that is created on surface of capacitor C2 is the reason for electric current in coil L2 and in strength of this reason some power is created in the load R. There is no directed radio beam here. Tesla's approach is the method for utilisation of changing potential in one point of the space.

3. Acceleration in Potential Field: In the classical example, the potential field produce some work to accelerate the body (acceleration a>0 ) but then the system must make the same work to return the body in start point ( acceleration a<0 ). Classical conclusion is: total net work of potential field is equal to zero and potential field can not be used to create the power in load. It is not mistake but it is the wrong general conclusion from the particular case only. When parameters of the field or parameters of the working body are changing it is possible to create constant acceleration of the body in potential field. Examples: Screening for part of the rotor trajectory to use Coulomb forces only for acceleration of the rotor, patent USA 4897592. Another way to exclude negative part of the work is the spatial superposition for field source and working body, Fig.3. This scheme is proposal for experiment. Graphic - Figure 3: currently N/A Electrode that is connected to negative high potential source is placed near cathode. In strength of this reason the field of this electrode make the work to accelerate free electrons are emitted from cathode. So, kinetic energy of the electrons is increasing in the process of the motion of the electrons. Some analogy allow to consider well-known Chernetsky self-generating discharge as demonstration for work of potential field. Small demonstration Frolov's device was produced for the conference "New Ideas in Natural Sciences", 17 -22 June 1996, St.-Petersburg, Russia. The load was connected in serial with discharge arc. The input current is decreasing when the arc is created in the secondary circuit and the power output is increasing. N. Tesla named this direction of research as "the electric arc as the source of the power". Really, the arc is working in both sides: in the side of the source and in the side of the load, that allow to compensate the input power and to powered the load free. So, the arc is so called "bi-directional process". Alexander Chernetsky [5] explained his result as pinch-effect for the current of the many hundred Ampere arc. His explanation involved the virtual particles concept and vacuum zero point energy theory. Other explanation is proposed here. Fig.4 show two electrodes and it is clear that charged particle would obtain some additional energy in the process of motion, since it is the accelerated motion in the electric field between electrodes.

W2 > W1 in strength of the acceleration of the electron by potential field E.

4. Inner Structure of Potential Field: We noted above the bi-directional process. The Whittaker's potential concept consider the potential as bi-directional energy flow [6]. Thomas E. Bearden [7] wrote in his book Gravitobiology, p.2: "Space-time in a sense may be regarded as a conglomerate of potentials - including the scalar EM potentials. Therefore the simplest structure of EM scalar potentials (trapped EM energy) is also nominally composed of such spin-2 gravitons." Structure of graviton and potentials, by Bearden, is coupled photon/antiphoton pair. Antiphoton is reverse-time process. Therefore, the potential field can be considered as a bi-directional electromagnetic process/antiprocess. So, power can be produced by means of potential field only in result of the inner field structure disbalance. Bi-directional energy flow described above, mathematically can be presented as the equation:

where zero balance is created by means of two opposite process. If one of the process A is the source of power, the other part B must be changing also. So, for such sort process there is equation:

and in another view:

If the time function for B part is considered as reversed time t_{r}and time for process A is considered as direct time t_{d}, we obtain the equation for total energy conservation law that is taking into consideration direct time and reverse time energy processes:

Conclusion by F.8: Space power is unlimited for time/reverse-time balanced systems. There is no limit for power extraction if any change of value A correspond to change of value B. The conservation law for energy means the conservation of time balance only: energy of processes in direct time must be equal to the energy of processes in reversed time. This formulation is unification of Newton mechanics law (action - reaction ) and conservation law. In general view it can be named as the law for chronal balance. Time structure can be more complex than bi-directional "time/reverse-time" and chronal area like space area can be considered in many-dimensional version also.

5. Inertial-less propulsion: By Newton's laws and by Nature common sense, any active force can be created only in pair with reactive force. This rule describe the balanced interaction between two bodies. But there is a very interesting case: one body and some substance around this body that also include the ether. Let's show that for any kind "reactionless" moving system there is reaction, but it is the reaction along 4th dimension. According to the Newton's 1670th notion for the ether, there is no any ether in open space (space quite far from any mass) but the ether exist only inside and near the bodies [8]. By this concept for the ether it will possible to develop the ether-dynamics. The key to understanding of the nature of the gravitation, by Academician Vavilov, author of the book about Sir Isaac Newton [8], p.84, is gradient of the density of the ether in a matter and in the space around the matter. It is known that accelerating or decelerating body in the vacuum have some reactive interaction with space: it is the effect of inertia. The same processed inside of some liquid can be presented as reaction of the liquid on the change of the velocity of the body. So, space itself can be represented as some substance also. The equality of rest mass and inertial mass result from the liquid model and it confirm the supposition about the ether is joined with the mass-object, o, in the paper "Optic" [8, p.86] Sir Isaac Newton stated that there is no the ether in "open space". If we consider the mass-particle as the "condensed ether", around the mass the ether is more rarefied, since it was used to create the particles, but from the other hand, by Newton, outside the body the density of the ether is increasing with distance from the body. In this case, the "open space" must be considered as a very dense ether, but by Newton there is no ether in the "open space". How we can connect all this together? Perhaps, solution is the understanding of the structure of the space, i.e. the ether can be considered as some kind change of the structure of the vacuum. Some local change of vacuum structure that produce the mass-particle must be compensated by corresponding opposite change of vacuum structure around the mass-particle. The gradient of the density of the ether is the reason for ether flows, by Newton, and it can be considered in other words as gradient of potential and some potential field. In this case, the notion of the "density of the ether" can be changed to the notion of the gradient of the potential "grad". Taking that "ether" and " grad " is the same notion, we avoid showed above question, since the gradient is increasing if the distance is increasing also, but for any two point of the open space (quite far from any mass) there is no any gradient of potential between them. Important part of the gravitation concept that is proposed above, is follows from the M. Faraday's opinion about matter nature. In his letter of June 25, 1844 to Richard Tailor, M. Faraday wrote: So, matter anywhere is continuous... it is not necessary to suppose the difference between atoms of the matter and some intermediate space. The forces around centres provide to these centres the properties of the matter... M.Faraday considered this aspect to make conclusion for nature of electric conductivity and insulation. But his point of view can be developed for gravitation aspect also. Atom and space around of the atom is the same matter in different states and the difference is the opposite directions of the time flow for "inner cosmos" of matter and "spatial cosmos" between atoms. Pre-conditions above are basis for conclusion: Any body displace ether mass that equal to body mass, it is well-known Arhimed's law for ether (in generalised form). Since motion of any body have place inside of real substance, this substance (space-time itself) can be used for "reactionless" or ether-dynamical (like aerodynamical) method of motion. Forces are acting to the body in this case are external and law of conservation (for energy, momentum, impulse) is true if body and substance around body (air, liquid, ether) is considered as closed system. But if the Arhimed's force is spatial only, the force that is acting from the ether to the mass-body is chronal, i.e it is the reason for motion of the mass-body in the 4-th dimension. Since ether-dynamical motion use mass of ether (that was demonstrated as inertial mass) to create the ether gradient,in this case inertia effect is not producingfor accelerating or decelerating object, so the ether-dynamical motion can be named as the inertia-less motion. In fact, the natural gradient of electric potential is created round any charged mass-object M (single terminal) just in strength ofthe inner topology of the space, Fig.5. Graphic - Figure 5: currently N/A The force F is acting to the dielectical polarised body B just in strength of the natural gradient of the potential, since the value of the potential is decreasing from maximum to zero at the infinity distance from the charged body M. The same phenomenon is the reason for mutual attraction of two plates of any capacitor. The example of technical method for compensation of this gradient is T.T.Brown's USA patent number 3,187,206 of June 1, 1965, that describe some methods for creation of the propulsion force by means of the gradient of the dielectrical properties of the substance. The method allow to compensate the gradient of the potential for one plate and to increase the gradient for second plate, so attraction of the plates become asymmetrical. The work that is created in such sort system is result of constant propulsion force, that can be used by Brown to rotate any powerful dynamo or to make the machine to fly. According the present paper, it is the result of the asymmetry of the chronal balance also.Conclusion: From the concept disclosed above any quantity of the energy can be created in accordance with the balance law: any energy process is created in pair with contra-directional energy process. Mutual-compensation for processes can have place both in the space (spatial separation) and in the time (chronal separation). Asymmetry for spatial separated paired energy processes is the technology for reactionless propulsion force in space. Asymmetry for chronally separated paired energy processes is the technology for propulsion force in time. Both technologies can be designed as a new type motion system.

References: 1. PhReview E, vol.48, num.2, p.1562-1565, Extracting energy and heat from the vacuum; PhReview A, vol.39, num.5, Gravity as a zero-point-fluctuation force, Dr. Harold Puthoff. Patent: Electronic Devices Using Discreet, Contained Charge Particle Bundless and Source of Same, H.E.Puthoff, E.W. Church, Jr.,B.B.Clifton, S.R.Little patent number 5,208,844 of May 4, 1993. 2. A.A.Nassikas, 1994, The Hypothesis of the Unified Field and the principle of its Dual Interpretation. III International Conference: "Problems of Space, Time, Gravitation". Russian Academy of Sciences, SRIRE-Politechnika. St.Petersburg, Russia. 3. The measurement of the conductivity current that is created by the polarisation current. Zaev N.E., Avramenko S.V., Lisin V.N., Journal of The Russian Physical Ideas, Moscow, number 2, p.68, 1991, in Russian. 4. Nikola Tesla, Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1990, Publ. in Angriff Press, P.O.Box 2726, Hollywood, CA, 90078, USA. 5. Alexander Chernetsky, On the physical nature for bioenergetical phenomenons and on its modelling, Politechnical Inst., publications, 1989, in Russian. 6. On the Expression of the Electromagnetic Field due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions, by E.T. Whittaker, 1903, Published in Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Vol.1, 1904, p.367-372. Also it is included in Annex C, Gravitobilogy, T.E.Bearden, p. c-1. 7. Gravitobiology, by T.E.Bearden, 1991, Tesla Book Company, P.O.Box 121873 Chula Vista, CA 91912, USA. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 86-50553. 8. Newton I, Letter to Boile of 1679, "Isaac Newton", Acad. Vavilov S.I., published by The Academy of the Sciences of the USSR, Moscow-Leningrad, 1943, in Russian, p.95-98.